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Hybrid

hybrid-electric car

The first gasoline-electric hybrid car was developed by the Woods Motor Vehicle Company in Chicago, published in 1917. The hybrid was a commercial flop, turn out to be slow for its price, and difficult to maintain. The hybrid-electric vehicle would not benefit until the release of the Toyota Prius in Japan in 1997 followed by the Honda Insight in 1999. While initially perceived as unnecessary because of the low cost of gasoline, caused by rising prices worldwide for crude oil hybrids, many automakers in the late 2000s release, they are now regarded as one of the most important segment of the automotive market in the future. Produced Worldwide sales of Toyota hybrid vehicles reached 1.7 million vehicles in January 2009. The second generation of the Honda Insight was the best-selling vehicle in Japan in April 2009, marking the first time, HEV, that the distinction has received. U.S. automakers have made the development of hybrid cars are a top priority.

In 1931, Erich Gaiche invented and drove from Altenburg to Berlin a 1/2 horsepower electric car later with functions in Hybrid cars fitted. Its top speed was 25 miles per hour (40 kph), but it was supported by the Motor Transport Office license, which are taxed by the German tax office and patented by the German Imperial Patent Office. The car has been recalculated to the engine when the car went downhill. Additional power to charge the battery has been through a cylinder with compressed air, re-transmitted by small air pumps activated by the vibrations of the chassis and brakes and by igniting explosive gas charged. " A report on the car and its characterization as a " inventor can crank in the autobiography of Arthur Koestler, Arrow will be found in the Blue, pages 269-271, to coincide summarize a newspaper article written by Koestler. No production of the prototype was reported.

Modern HEVs use efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative braking, the vehicle kinetic energy into the battery supply transforms electrical energy, instead of being wasted as heat energy as vehicles equipped with conventional brakes do. Some species of HEVs use its internal combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (this combination is known as a motor-generator) to either recharge their batteries or directly drive power feed to the electric motors that the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it, if necessary, will be published this as a start-stop system. A hybrid-electric vehicles produce fewer emissions from the ICE through a comparatively large petrol car than a gasoline engine in an HEV is usually smaller than a purely fossil-fuel vehicle, and if not used directly to drive the car can be tuned to run at maximum efficiency, further improving fuel economy.

The regenerative braking system was the core concept of most production HEVs electrical engineer David Arthurs developed around 1978 Off -the-shelf components and an Opel GT. However, the voltage regulator, the battery link, engine (Jet engine starter motor) and DC generator was Arthurs. The vehicle exhibited 75 miles per U.S. gallon (3.1 L/100 km, 90 mpg even imp) fuel economy and plans for it (as well as some updated versions) are available through the Mother Earth News web site. The Mother Earth News " own 1980 version claimed nearly 84 miles per U.S. gallon (2.8 L/100 km, 101 mpg-imp).

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a hybrid vehicle to reach the conventional internal combustion engine with an electric drive propulsion system, which will combine the presence of the electric drive better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle. A hybrid electric vehicle is also a form of electric vehicles, and a variety of types of HEV exist, and the extent to which they operate, as well as EVS varied. The most common form of HEV is hybrid-electric car, a car driven by a gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric motors powered by batteries.

In 1901, while employed Lohner Coach Factory, developed Ferdinand Porsche Mixte " ", a series-hybrid vehicle to its previous system based " " Lohner-Porsche electric cars. The Mixte broke several Austrian speed records and won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. The Mixte used a gasoline engine driving a generator, which in turn powered electric hub motors with a small battery pack for reliability. It had a range of 50 km, a top speed of 50 km/h and an output of 5:22 kW during 20 minutes.

A recent working prototype of the HEV was built by Victor Wouk (one of the scientists The Henney Kilowatt, the first transistor-based electric car is involved). Wouk work with HEVs in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the Godfather of hybrid " ". Wouk installed a prototype hybrid drivetrain (with a 16 kW electric motor) in in 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM in 1970 for Federal Clean Car Incentive Program, but the program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1976 ended as was Eric Stork, head of the EPA at the time, a drawback coverup indicted.

In 1989, Audi produced its first iteration of the Audi Duo (or Audi 100 Avant duo) experimental vehicle As a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. This car had a 12.6 bhp Siemens electric motor driving the rear wheels. A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the engine that drove the rear wheels. The vehicle has front wheels were from a 2.3-liter five-cylinder-powered engine with an output of 136 hp (101 kW). The intention was to a vehicle, the operation of the engine in the country and electric mode in the city could produce. Operation could be selected by the driver. Only ten vehicles were probably made, was a disadvantage that by the additional weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient 'when running on their engines only as a standard Audi 100s with the same engine.

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